This book will systematically cover all the main topics involved in the current practice of a cardiac surgeon. It will incorporate current guidelines for practice (such as from the American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology) and up-to-date information based on current literature. All the chapters have been written by cardiac surgeons who have recently undertaken their Cardiothoracic Board / Specialty Exit examinations and reviewed by a cardiothoracic examiner of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Each chapter will be structured to include aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, indications for surgery, peri-operative management, surgical options and postoperative care. Possible complications will be discussed and the results of current practice presented. Importantly there will be a section on basic sciences related to the practising cardiac surgeon and a further section on cardiac investigations with many images illustrating the variety of pathologies. Each chapter will also contain important references for further reading and greater depth of knowledge. The data and body of knowledge presented in this book is strictly evidence-based and is relevant to all cardiac surgical trainees, at any stage of their training programme. It will provide interns, residents and specialist registrars the necessary information to carry out their daily duties. Adult cardiologists and cardiothoracic intensive care unit specialists will also find the book useful in terms of the indications and surgical management of these patients, as they are integral to the cardiac surgical process. Another important group is the nursing staff, physiotherapists and other professions allied to medicine, both surgical and cardiological, working with patients with adult cardiac disease either pre-operatively or postoperatively, as it will help to give a detailed understanding of the principles surrounding adult cardiac surgical disease. Most importantly, the book is ideal as a revision aid for residents/registrars undertaking their Cardiothoracic Surgery Board examinations around the world. Although these examinations vary in format in different countries, this book is applicable to all cardiothoracic surgical trainees. Its concise, yet complete coverage of the important topics, make it the ideal guide to answer the key questions in cardiac surgery that are asked within the confines of an examination.